The Summary of the Internet for People in a Hurry- Part 1

Do not expect a five-sentence summary.

This is the internet explained in the simplest explanation possible.

Note: We do not own any copyrights of these contents. The context is below is a research on the we. Refer below for sources.

Alright! No preamble, let’s get started!

What is the Internet?

  • Internet is a network that allows computers to talk to one another which pretty much works like postal services. Originated from the ARPAnet, created in the 1960s, for the purpose of researchers and scientists in different universities communicating with each other, and for military purposes.
  • To communicate with each other, every device need an IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, just like building and home addresses, IP addresses differentiate one device from the other.

And an IP address??

  • IP addresses are needed when using the internet, just like how we need to attach our home addresses, and the receivers’ home addresses, to the letters we’re about to send. IP addresses are numbers uniquely formed into a string of numbers like this:
    • ‘nnn.nnn.nn.nnn’ or
    •  ‘nnnn:nnnn:nnnn::nnnn’. or whatever
  • But when we want to access websites, we don’t look them up with their IP addresses, because obviously who does that? We normally look up the domain name of the sites we want to visit in our web browser, for example,, and the DNS servers would translate that into nnn.nnn.nn.nnn IP address and find it for us. Okay we’ll get to know the  types of IP addresses in a moment.

DNS server?

  • A DNS server can also be called a name server, nameserver, and domain name server. It is a house, of IP addresses and their FQDN, it is the translator between the two. Read more about DNS serverdns-and-how-it-works
  • FQDN stands for ‘Fully Qualified Domain Name‘, ‘qualified’ here basically means ‘specified’.  FQDN is written with the hostname, the domain name, and the top-level domain, separated by dots- [hostname].[domain].[top-level domain].
    • So for example in this FQDN:, “www” is the hostname, “tesla” is the domain name, and “com” is the top-level domain. or in this ‘’, then “mail” is the hostname, “google” is the domain, and “com” is the top-level domain.
    • See, we most of the time have provide the FQDN, not just the hostname, not just the domain name because otherwise the DNS server wouldn’t be able to find the exact location of it’s IP address with its system. Thus, the search engines such as google, bing, yahoo and so on, help us with that. We type in the domain name, or the content we want to search about in the search engines, and it in turns, provides us with the FQDN and we click on that.
    • But sometimes we can also use PQDN, which is just another acronym for ‘Partially Qualified Domain Name‘, its just a domain name that is not fully specified. It is used for convenience, but only for well-known websites, for example, we can just type ‘en‘, and the engine would assume it’s ““. Read more about FQDN and PQDN here
  • Malware & DNS Servers

    It is recommended to install an antivirus program as it shields your computer against malware that mostly causes trouble such as changing the DNS server settings. Under legitimate DNS/web server like Google, bing or Yahoo, accessing your bank’s URl would load the correct website and you can log in your account safely. But with a malware infected the corrupted server might direct you to a completely deceitful website, and you could incautiously give away your credentials to scammers, or a website full of advertisements that might trick you into buying fake programs.

    Although the malware can redirect our websites, we can also do that with our DNS servers with a feature called “OpenDNS”. The feature are usually used for maintaining how web is used, mostly in a good way, such as blocking adult websites, gambling websites, social media, etc.

Different types of IP addresses

IP addresses are used differently according to their types. There are private IP addresses, and public IP addresses.

1. Private IP addresses

Private IP addresses are used within your own private network, like the one you probably run at home, and it’s not connect to the outside world, which is the internet. These types of IP addresses are used to provide a way for your devices to communicate with your router (refer to the bottom of the page for explanation) and all the other devices in your private network such as your wireless printer, file server, etc.

Private IP addresses can be set manually, (which would get you static IP addresses) or assigned automatically by your router DHCP without overlapping one another (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), which would get you dynamic IP addresses. In most homes and small businesses, the router acts as the DHCP server.

In large networks, a single computer might act as the DHCP server. As your private IP address is only used with your router, it does not need to be unique, there are millions of devices out there having an IP address exactly the same like yours.

2. Public IP addresses

Public IP addresses are used on the “outside” of your network, and can’t be used in your private network and are assigned by your ISP using NAT (Network Address Translation).

NAT is a system used to convert private IP addresses into public addresses by keeping a table with its records, in order to send and receive data to the right devices. It allows the devices within the private network to use one unregistered public IP address with its “port number” to connect to the internet. The port number represent the specific device, apps or tabs in your web browser, etc.

The public IP address is the main address that your home or business network uses to communicate with the rest of the networked devices around the world (i.e. the internet), so the devices with the same network would be given ‘one’ public IP address. This acts like a firewall that protects your computers by hiding your personal IP addresses behind one public address. The Demonstration of IP addresses in Private and Public Network

What is a Router?

Other than issuing private IP addresses to different devices in the internal network, a router can also act as a form security to the devices from attack as it serves as a border between the private IP addresses and the public IP addresses. Most routers are manufactured by companies like Linksys, 3Com, Belkin, D-Link, Motorola, TRENDnet, and Cisco, but there are many others.

This is the end of “The Summary of the Internet for People in a Hurry-Part 1”. Thank you for reading. Stay tuned for part 2.



How Vulnerable are You to a Hacker?

In one of these days, each and every one of us, without a doubt have stumbled upon, at least once, an article or a video of a particular person, a business, a government site, a corporation being victims of data breaches from anonymous hackers either for good intention or vicious self-gain. Throughout the history there are countless breakout of these incidents, these criminal activities, and some of those are known and made available of the public eyes, but what about those that are not found out, those hackers who got away harming other people? Somehow that already crossed your mind about all of this things that’s happening in the world, or some might say this is obvious.

But it also crossed your mind, why does it matter? besides, you got nothing to hide, and the chance of you being targeted is nothing compared to a celebrity, or a politician. Well, my friend, you got everything to hide from a hacker.


1. Social media

The issue is that users of social networks, as uninformed as they may be, take this issue very lightly. Most, as vulnerable as they may be, take it with a grain of salt of how vulnerable they are to potential hackers out there. With the perks of being able to communicate and share general  or  personal going-ons to their friends and family to see, folks tend to undermine the importance and safety of their privacy. It’s not opinionated to say that some get recklessly negligent on their security like passwords for instance, not just ordinary people but also cyber security professionals.

rsa_report_17.jpgAnother of the things that are taken for granted most of time is how advanced technologies has become nowadays, and how untrustworthy they are. A certain lot of people are too generous, and too trusting on social media, for example conforming to log in their Facebook or email accounts on a game app to invite friends, giving in to completing random quizzes about your personal interests or opinions to just volunteer more information about themselves to unreliable websites.

It’s hard to break this to you but even statuses, pictures, locations and other voluntary information that you put out there can also be harmfully used against you.

People use Facebook to contact each other privately, whether to their family, friends, colleagues, and their bosses, and unless you are a very conservative person (as you should moderately be on the internet), it is natural that you have sent and received a lot of personal information, confidential and non-confidential stuff about yourself and others, and your opinion on things in your private messages. And imagine what could happen if someone gets hold of your accounts, not so private now, are they?

One case of a cyber-crime involved a hacker who used just Facebook status updates, pictures, and other personal details posted publicly to hack email accounts, and then posted embarrassing photos of the victims on Facebook, and most of the victims are females. Terrified yet?

Reported a while ago, 0.06% of the billions users of Facebook are hacked daily. Now that doesn’t sound like much right, but wake up! it’s 600,000 accounts being hacked ‘daily’. And the report was seven years ago, when technology and IT studies were undoubtedly advanced than now.

On top of that here’s a reminder of recent incidents…

87 million Facebook users affected by data breach

Beginning since 2014, Cambridge Analytica was found to have collected Facebook users information without their consent, for the purpose of influencing the US presidential election.

The company which was alleged to conspire with Donald Trump’s election team, has said to be compiled millions of US citizen’s data, to experiment their propaganda strategy and influence voters. According to Zuckerberg, the number of users affected has reach 87 million. Read more>>

However, it’s not only Facebook accounts that have hacked, reported in 2017, about six million Instagram accounts have been tragically uncovered on the internet

A bunch of hackers created a dark web forum selling data of personal information database of personal information, revealing private phone numbers and email addresses.

According Telegraph, “photo hacks soared after an incident of compromised photos of the singer Selena Gomez.

Claimed by the UK security research that hundreds of contact details of celebrities including Emma Watson, Taylor Swift and Harry Styles were found on the dark web.

There were even sales of personal data that could be accessed for a price of $10 per search.

2. Emails and Cloud storage hacks

The cases involving the hacks of social media accounts such as Facebook and Instagram are barely the tip of the iceberg. Regardless, those are less than a fraction of what they can do with the information they got from your social media accounts. Those vicous hackers with their vicious wit can ‘phish’ out bits and bits of details, and use those compiled details to get the gist of answers to security questions and answers or even passwords to your email account.

The ‘phished’ details might include birthdays (even if you don’t put it on your profile, they can still scroll through your wall posts or pictures, trust me, it’s easier than you think), your address, your mother’s name, the town you met your boyfriend/girlfriend/spouse and so on. And it’s even worse if you put out your email that you use for your cloud storage, banks, credit cards and other important, financial related platforms, it’s so much less of a pain in the neck for those cyber criminals, you’re just basically asking for it. And if your social media profiles are an aquarium, your emails are the ocean! No, I’m not exaggerating!

iCloud Photos of Celebrities Hacked, 2014

Jennifer Lawrence

And as more people are increasingly using the cloud to keep their personal and confidential data. With the emails hacked they could get their hands on a lot of useful information for their own gain. And of course people with high profiles stand very high chance of being targeted by those culprits, as seen by what fell upon an Academy Award winner Jennifer Lawrence one day in 2014.

The famous actress had involuntarily became one of the several celebrities who had learned it the hard way that storing your nudes in Apple iCloud probably wasn’t the best idea. It was just a part of a huge leak of nude and nearly nude photographs of Rihanna, Kate Upton, Kaley Cuoco, Adrianne Curry, and almost three hundred other celebrities, most of them women, whose smart phone images had been accessed remotely. Just imagine one day, waking up in one summer morning having to face the ‘seemingly impossible’ incident of your nudes splashing around on the net, for everyone to see, including everyone you know, your friends, your family. It is the nightmare of every single human being.

Nonetheless, Apple, who barely ever provided any details on security issues, did not own the blame on their part. Instead, they claimed the breach was a “very targeted attack on user names, passwords, and security question” and added that “none of the cases we have investigated has resulted from any breach in any of Apple’s systems including iCloud or Find my iPhone.”

500 million Yahoo accounts were stolen

Nothing could be as catastrophic as an infiltration into a big company and seizes a billion passwords of users. Despite the fact that this large-scale is thankfully very hard to maneuver, it still happens.

Yahoo Voice hacked, 400,000 yahoo passwords leaked

Back in 2014, the biggest email hack  in the history of the world was revealed. Almost half a billion users of Yahoo accounts were compromised with unencrypted security questions and answers which are mostly link to other accounts as well as. Therefore, users were forced to change their passwords and basically everything else related to security on other networks.

LinkedIn Lost 167 Million Account Credentials in Data Breach in 2012


According to Fortune, 6.5 million encrypted passwords were seized by a Russian hacker, who goes by the name “Peace” was selling 117 email and password combinations on the dark web for bitcoins, which was about $2,300. Read more>>

Here are the top five other major data breaches:

1.  Adult Friend Finder

Impacted for than 412.2 million accounts. Datas included names, email addresses and passwords.

2. eBay

145 million users compromised. Names, addresses, dates of birth and encrypted passwords were exposed.

3. Equifax

Personal information (including Social Security Numbers, birth dates, addresses, and in some cases drivers’ license numbers) of 143 million consumers; 209,000 consumers also had their credit card data exposed.

4.  Heartland Payment Systems 

134 million credit cards exposed through SQL injection to install spyware on Heartland’s data systems.

 5. Target Stores 

Credit/debit card information and/or contact information of up to 110 million people compromised.

And the list goes on and on and on…..So the next time you’re about to post things on social media, send emails, setting passwords, or taking pictures, think about how much nuisance you stand to face, if shit happens.

See also:

The summary of internet for people in a hurry – Part 1

How to protect your credit/debit card

The summary of the dark web for people in a hurry

Advices from Kevin Mitnick