Do not expect a five-sentence summary.
This is the internet explained in the simplest explanation possible.
Note: We do not own any copyrights of these contents. The context is below is a research on the we. Refer below for sources.
Alright! No preamble, let’s get started!
What is the Internet?
- Internet is a network that allows computers to talk to one another which pretty much works like postal services. Originated from the ARPAnet, created in the 1960s, for the purpose of researchers and scientists in different universities communicating with each other, and for military purposes.
- To communicate with each other, every device need an IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, just like building and home addresses, IP addresses differentiate one device from the other.
And an IP address??
- IP addresses are needed when using the internet, just like how we need to attach our home addresses, and the receivers’ home addresses, to the letters we’re about to send. IP addresses are numbers uniquely formed into a string of numbers like this:
- ‘nnn.nnn.nn.nnn’ or
- ‘nnnn:nnnn:nnnn::nnnn’. or whatever
- But when we want to access websites, we don’t look them up with their IP addresses, because obviously who does that? We normally look up the domain name of the sites we want to visit in our web browser, for example, http://www.carpediemintelligently.com, and the DNS servers would translate that into nnn.nnn.nn.nnn IP address and find it for us. Okay we’ll get to know the types of IP addresses in a moment.
- A DNS server can also be called a name server, nameserver, and domain name server. It is a house, of IP addresses and their FQDN, it is the translator between the two. Read more about DNS server
- FQDN stands for ‘Fully Qualified Domain Name‘, ‘qualified’ here basically means ‘specified’. FQDN is written with the hostname, the domain name, and the top-level domain, separated by dots- [hostname].[domain].[top-level domain].
- So for example in this FQDN: http://www.tesla.com, “www” is the hostname, “tesla” is the domain name, and “com” is the top-level domain. or in this ‘mail.google.com’, then “mail” is the hostname, “google” is the domain, and “com” is the top-level domain.
- See, we most of the time have provide the FQDN, not just the hostname, not just the domain name because otherwise the DNS server wouldn’t be able to find the exact location of it’s IP address with its system. Thus, the search engines such as google, bing, yahoo and so on, help us with that. We type in the domain name, or the content we want to search about in the search engines, and it in turns, provides us with the FQDN and we click on that.
- But sometimes we can also use PQDN, which is just another acronym for ‘Partially Qualified Domain Name‘, its just a domain name that is not fully specified. It is used for convenience, but only for well-known websites, for example, we can just type ‘en‘, and the engine would assume it’s “en.wikipedia.org“. Read more about FQDN and PQDN here
Malware & DNS Servers
It is recommended to install an antivirus program as it shields your computer against malware that mostly causes trouble such as changing the DNS server settings. Under legitimate DNS/web server like Google, bing or Yahoo, accessing your bank’s URl would load the correct website and you can log in your account safely. But with a malware infected the corrupted server might direct you to a completely deceitful website, and you could incautiously give away your credentials to scammers, or a website full of advertisements that might trick you into buying fake programs.
Although the malware can redirect our websites, we can also do that with our DNS servers with a feature called “OpenDNS”. The feature are usually used for maintaining how web is used, mostly in a good way, such as blocking adult websites, gambling websites, social media, etc.
Different types of IP addresses
IP addresses are used differently according to their types. There are private IP addresses, and public IP addresses.
1. Private IP addresses
Private IP addresses are used within your own private network, like the one you probably run at home, and it’s not connect to the outside world, which is the internet. These types of IP addresses are used to provide a way for your devices to communicate with your router (refer to the bottom of the page for explanation) and all the other devices in your private network such as your wireless printer, file server, etc.
Private IP addresses can be set manually, (which would get you static IP addresses) or assigned automatically by your router DHCP without overlapping one another (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), which would get you dynamic IP addresses. In most homes and small businesses, the router acts as the DHCP server.
In large networks, a single computer might act as the DHCP server. As your private IP address is only used with your router, it does not need to be unique, there are millions of devices out there having an IP address exactly the same like yours.
2. Public IP addresses
Public IP addresses are used on the “outside” of your network, and can’t be used in your private network and are assigned by your ISP using NAT (Network Address Translation).
NAT is a system used to convert private IP addresses into public addresses by keeping a table with its records, in order to send and receive data to the right devices. It allows the devices within the private network to use one unregistered public IP address with its “port number” to connect to the internet. The port number represent the specific device, apps or tabs in your web browser, etc.
The public IP address is the main address that your home or business network uses to communicate with the rest of the networked devices around the world (i.e. the internet), so the devices with the same network would be given ‘one’ public IP address. This acts like a firewall that protects your computers by hiding your personal IP addresses behind one public address.
What is a Router?
Other than issuing private IP addresses to different devices in the internal network, a router can also act as a form security to the devices from attack as it serves as a border between the private IP addresses and the public IP addresses. Most routers are manufactured by companies like Linksys, 3Com, Belkin, D-Link, Motorola, TRENDnet, and Cisco, but there are many others.
This is the end of “The Summary of the Internet for People in a Hurry-Part 1”. Thank you for reading. Stay tuned for part 2.